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Discussion Starter #1
Hi All,

Long time reader, first time poster. I have been trying to diagnose this problem for months and have done all the searching and reading that I could, but have turned up nothing.

As the title suggests, when the truck is in high-gear, 2wd or 4 doesn't matter, it will not shift into 5th gear. This problem coincided with my slip indicator light (only) being illuminated all the time. No codes are present in any of the ECU's and I have performed the zero-point calibration probably a dozen times with no help.

I have scanned and monitored the ECU data with both an Autel scanner as well as recently purchasing a TechStream scanner. Still, no DTC's of any sort are being triggered, and all wheel sensors seem to be reporting appropriately. Monitoring the live data in TechStream, I did notice that the speed sensor on the output side of the transmission (SP2) is reading MUCH lower than I would anticipate, if it is supposed to be in MPH similar to the vehicles actual speed. Input SPD appears to be correct.

Out of curiosity, I shifted into 4lo while continuing to montior via the TeachStream and after noticing that SP2 was reading the approximately correctly, I noticed that the transmission shifted into 5th! I switched back to 2H, and back to not having 5th gear.

There are a few modifications to the truck that may need to be considered: it has an Inchworm "Lefty" transfer case, factory e-locker with locker bypass wired in so that it can engage in high gear, it is modestly lifted and has an ARB air locker installed in the front.

I have found several other threads addressing one problem or the other, and I have tried everything that was applicable to this situation, but still have made no progress. I will say that everything was working perfectly before a very light off-road excursion through some sand and a little bit of mud and rocks.

Any help or suggestions would be very welcome! Thanks!
 

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Discussion Starter #2
The factory service manual states that the symptom of the SLIP indicator light remaining on is either the light circuit (which it is not; I have tested with TechStream) or the master cylinder solenoid. Has anyone experienced a master cylinder solenoid failure in a way to trip the SLIP light but not trigger any other DTC's? I also don't see how this would have an effect on 5th gear in high but not in low. Any ideas?
 

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Discussion Starter #4
I didn't install the lefty myself, but it was shifting into 5th with no issues (or lights) with the lefty before; it was fine for years in fact. I went on a mild off-road adventure and when I got back onto pavement I noticed that the SLIP light was on. I figured it just needed a zero-point calibration so didn't think much of it until I got back on the freeway and discovered the 5th gear issue.
 

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This is an interesting one, given the list of vehicle modifications, but the fact that everything worked as expected for years should help start the troubleshooting.

What we do know:
1. All the Toyota electro-nannies worked well for an extended period of time after the driveline mods were made.
2. The problem first appeared after some off-road driving.
3. No DTCs are logged.
4. The suspension has a "modest" lift.
5. All wheel speed sensors "seem" to be outputting pulses.

Since the SLIP indicator is triggered by some difference in the output pulse rate between the wheel speed sensors (if all wheels have the same diameter tires, and none are slipping, the pulse rate will be nearly identical from all four sensors), the first place I'd look is for some anomaly in the speed sensor output. That could be a damaged cable (consistent with off-roading), or a failing front wheel bearing that is affecting sensor output.

I'd pull the front wheel speed sensors and check for debris on the nose of the sensors, or any evidence that the sensors have contacted the tone ring on the wheel bearing.

Next, perform a very meticulous inspection of the cabling and connectors at all four of the wheel speed sensors. If the cable gets stretched, a conductor can be broken while the cable jacket remains intact.

After that, it gets more complex.
 

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Discussion Starter #6
I will try inspecting everything this weekend. Thank you. Just a little more information for what it is worth: the SLIP light illuminates and stays solid from the moment the ignition is on, but it does flash if the rear wheels lose traction in 2h. I'll respond with results after checking things out this weekend.
 

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Another interesting thread here, relating to the SLIP indicator. No really definitive root cause, but some some interesting info.

 

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Discussion Starter #8
That is an interesting thread... my ADD, 4x4, A-TRAC, e-locker and e-brake all work properly though. I will start checking the transfer case switches and connections to see if anything doesn’t look right. On the lefty, I believe there is only one switch utilized compared to 3 on the factory VF2A.

This morning I was able to inspect all the wheel speed sensors and everything looks clean and healthy. There is a slight bend in the passenger front harness that connects to the sensor though, so I have ordered a new one for good measure. No CEL or DTC’s and direction and speed PIDs in TechStream all look consistent and correct. I checked the hubs for any sign of wheel bearing problems and everything also seems good there.

I feel like it is very odd that it WILL shift into 5th in 4lo; any idea why the transmission output speed sensor (SP2) reads WAY too slow in high gear? The reading is consistent with what the vehicle speed would be if in low. I pulled the sensor and checked it with a multimeter and the resistance was perfectly in-spec with the service manual.
 

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Ok; I think that I have figured it out... but it does introduce some confusion that perhaps you can help clear up. I found a second switch on the transfer case... it is on the driver's side, WAY up high by the shifter and it connects to a blue plug in the factory harness. According to all the documentation that I have read, the Inchworm Lefty only has ONE solenoid-style connector. Anyway, since I had already checked the other side's switch, I unplugged the newly discovered switch and voila... no more SLIP light, SP2 is reading correctly, and best of all, I have 5th gear back. I also noticed that the shifts are much better and the truck is responding better at all speeds and throttle inputs.

However, while I am able to move the transfer case shifter into all positions, I do not have 4WD with the switch unplugged... there is a loud metallic rattling noise if I shift into 4H or 4L and attempt to drive more than 5MPH. I am assuming that the ADD is not engaging. I do have an ARB locker in front, but I don't want to add to the list of changing variables, so I have not attempted to utilize that at this point. According to the Inchworm documentation, the second connector CAN be connected to a SPST switch in the cabin to allow for 4WD engagement on the fly, but claims that it is not necessary. One switch is supposed to be the 4WD switch, which originates on the driver side of the stock xfer case, the second is involved in the ADD engagement and the 3rd is supposed to be simply for illuminating the "Neutral" light on the dash.

Can anyone chime in on the discovery of the second switch in the xfer case and if it is critical that I replace and reconnect it, or if this is a sign that perhaps my ADD is failing/failed. (4WD works properly with the switch plugged back in.

Thanks for all the support; I appreciate it!
 

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Call Marlin Crawler or whoever might be still selling those things and get an install document to verify what wire goes where. The crazy sounds you hear now I hope is not a big deal. I cannot see how it is a good thing to be honest.
 

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Ok; I think that I have figured it out... but it does introduce some confusion that perhaps you can help clear up. I found a second switch on the transfer case... it is on the driver's side, WAY up high by the shifter and it connects to a blue plug in the factory harness. According to all the documentation that I have read, the Inchworm Lefty only has ONE solenoid-style connector. Anyway, since I had already checked the other side's switch, I unplugged the newly discovered switch and voila... no more SLIP light, SP2 is reading correctly, and best of all, I have 5th gear back. I also noticed that the shifts are much better and the truck is responding better at all speeds and throttle inputs.

However, while I am able to move the transfer case shifter into all positions, I do not have 4WD with the switch unplugged... there is a loud metallic rattling noise if I shift into 4H or 4L and attempt to drive more than 5MPH. I am assuming that the ADD is not engaging. I do have an ARB locker in front, but I don't want to add to the list of changing variables, so I have not attempted to utilize that at this point. According to the Inchworm documentation, the second connector CAN be connected to a SPST switch in the cabin to allow for 4WD engagement on the fly, but claims that it is not necessary. One switch is supposed to be the 4WD switch, which originates on the driver side of the stock xfer case, the second is involved in the ADD engagement and the 3rd is supposed to be simply for illuminating the "Neutral" light on the dash.

Can anyone chime in on the discovery of the second switch in the xfer case and if it is critical that I replace and reconnect it, or if this is a sign that perhaps my ADD is failing/failed. (4WD works properly with the switch plugged back in.

Thanks for all the support; I appreciate it!
Transfer case switch #1 is the REAR switch on the DRIVER side of the case; it is the NEUTRAL INDICATOR switch.

Transfer case switch #2 is the FRONT switch on the DRIVER side; it is the L4 (low gear) indicator switch.

Transfer case switch #3 is the switch on the PASSENGER side of the case; it is the 4WD range switch, and (through the WD ECU) controls the front ADD.

But the question remains ... what changed? And why the 5th gear lockout?

These switches have a history of failing 'open' (or intermittently open) when the internal electrical contacts get contaminated with gear oil. I'd test each switch with a high-quality digital multimeter while someone runs the T-case lever through the various positions. When the switch is 'open', resistance should be well above 1 megohm; when the switch is 'closed', resistance should be 0.1 ohm or less.

Sometimes a flaky switch can be (temporarily) cured by vigorously running the T-case shifter through all positions 30-50 times or more to try to break through the tarnish or carbonized oil on the contacts. All three of the switches are internally identical.

See: Failure analysis: failed transfer case switch =...

Transfer case switch identification.JPG
 

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Discussion Starter #12
I am still trying to track down any installation documents for the lefty, but I have learned a few things in the meantime. The Inchworm installation walk-through that I WAS using as reference (here) , must be for a different version as it states that TC switch #2, the low indicator, had to switch sides on the lefty to the passenger side to the only available switch location. I have confirmed that on my lefty there are 2 switch locations and they follow the factory placement, only deleting switch #1, the neutral indicator.

I unplugged the low range switch (#2 from FJtest's list above) from the driver's side of the case and tested it with a multi-meter. With the shifter in 2H(should be open) the switch registered 650-700 kOhms. I removed the switch and noticed that the leads were badly worn. Once removed and cleaned, it doesn't show continuity when open, but still registers around 700 kOhms when closed. I replaced the switch in the case for now to keep it sealed while I order a new one. I then wired into the harness, using the connector I cut from the switch, to a toggle switch on the dash. Everything works as it should now as long as I toggle that switch when going into 4L. No lights, not rattling noise, 4WD works, A-TRAC works and I have 5th gear.

Even with the aftermarket parts involved, I was surprised that the symptoms presented didn't match anything in the factory service manual. I hope that this thread may prove useful to someone in the future that runs into similar issues. Thank you for your help on this!
 

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I am still trying to track down any installation documents for the lefty, but I have learned a few things in the meantime. The Inchworm installation walk-through that I WAS using as reference (here) , must be for a different version as it states that TC switch #2, the low indicator, had to switch sides on the lefty to the passenger side to the only available switch location. I have confirmed that on my lefty there are 2 switch locations and they follow the factory placement, only deleting switch #1, the neutral indicator.

I unplugged the low range switch (#2 from FJtest's list above) from the driver's side of the case and tested it with a multi-meter. With the shifter in 2H(should be open) the switch registered 650-700 kOhms. I removed the switch and noticed that the leads were badly worn. Once removed and cleaned, it doesn't show continuity when open, but still registers around 700 kOhms when closed. I replaced the switch in the case for now to keep it sealed while I order a new one. I then wired into the harness, using the connector I cut from the switch, to a toggle switch on the dash. Everything works as it should now as long as I toggle that switch when going into 4L. No lights, not rattling noise, 4WD works, A-TRAC works and I have 5th gear.

Even with the aftermarket parts involved, I was surprised that the symptoms presented didn't match anything in the factory service manual. I hope that this thread may prove useful to someone in the future that runs into similar issues. Thank you for your help on this!
Crawler -
Can you save the failed switch for me? I've opened up at least three of the transfer case switches that showed high resistance when CLOSED, and all have failed because gear oil somehow seeped past (or permeated through) the rubber diaphragm that separates the mechanical side from the electrical side, and contaminated the switch contacts.
Regardless, I'd like to look at your switch too to confirm this failure pattern. (PM coming your way.)

Also, check your transfer case breather and make sure there is no blockage or restriction that might allow internal pressure to build up and force oil into the switches.
 

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Crawler -
Can you save the failed switch for me? I've opened up at least three of the transfer case switches that showed high resistance when CLOSED, and all have failed because gear oil somehow seeped past (or permeated through) the rubber diaphragm that separates the mechanical side from the electrical side, and contaminated the switch contacts.
Regardless, I'd like to look at your switch too to confirm this failure pattern. (PM coming your way.)

Also, check your transfer case breather and make sure there is no blockage or restriction that might allow internal pressure to build up and force oil into the switches.
You bet; I've ordered a replacement, so I'll hang onto the old one for you after I swap it out. Good idea on the breather, I will double-check it.
 
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